It has been proven in practice that “preventing hepatitis, controlling grain storage to prevent mold, and improving drinking water” are the main components of primary prevention of liver cancer.
The first step is to prevent hepatitis B. Injecting hepatitis B vaccine can prevent hepatitis, and the 10-year protection rate of immunization can reach 76%, indicating that the vaccine has a long-term protective effect against hepatitis B virus infection. This method can significantly reduce the incidence of chronic hepatitis and thus prevent liver cancer. The main target for hepatitis B vaccination is children under 1 year old. Infants born within 24 hours require the first vaccination, followed by boosters at 1 month and 6 months, with each dose being 10 µg of vaccine. In Shanghai, 10 µg of vaccine was used to immunize children, and after 1 year, the positive rate of hepatitis B surface antibody reached 91.9%, with no cases of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, compared to 3.2% in the control group. Adults have a 60% to 80% infection rate with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and about 10% are carriers of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Therefore, large-scale vaccination is not suitable. However, special workers such as childcare personnel, surgeons, healthcare professionals who handle blood, laboratory personnel, dialysis ward personnel, etc., should be vaccinated. In hospitals, surgical procedures, blood transfusions, injections, and needle sticks must be strictly disinfected and tested to prevent iatrogenic transmission.
2,Manage grain storage and prevent mold growth.
Stored grain must be protected from moisture and heat, and moldy or spoiled food should not be consumed. The focus of grain management is on corn, peanuts, and their products. Control and monitor susceptible foodstuffs to mold; select corn and peanut varieties with anti-mold characteristics; harvest quickly, dry quickly, and store quickly; and keep grain moisture below 10%. Green tea contains polyphenols, which can reduce the incidence of precancerous lesions induced by aflatoxin. Foods rich in chlorophyll or chlorophyll may block the induction of liver cancer by aflatoxin.
3, Improve drinking water.
Improve the drinking water environment and enhance water quality. The quality of deep well water is better than that of shallow surface water. Pond water should not be consumed, and it is advisable to use groundwater as a source of drinking water. In rural areas, small-scale water treatment plants should be promoted to ensure unified water quality control.
4, Other preventive measures.
The incidence of liver cancer in the Qidong region of China is negatively correlated with the selenium content in food and residents’ blood. Adding selenium to drinking water can reduce the incidence of liver cancer induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats. Experimental research has found that selenium has a preventive effect on duck hepatitis and liver cancer. Further studies have shown that supplementing selenium salt can significantly reduce the incidence of liver cancer and hepatitis in high-risk areas. Selenium can also be provided through selenium yeast tablets. Selenium has the potential to induce cancer cell differentiation, inhibit proliferation, and reverse the malignant phenotype and cancer gene expression, which may be related to its cancer-preventing effects. In addition, it is advocated to quit smoking and drinking, reduce the intake of other carcinogens through diet, and limit the use of organochlorine pesticides.