The lungs are the respiratory organs of the human body, located in the thoracic cavity, divided into left and right sides, and the right lung is further divided into three lobes: upper, middle, and lower. The lobes of the lungs are connected by bronchi, which lead to the trachea and then to the nose. Bronchial lung cancer, commonly known as lung cancer, is a malignant tumor that originates in the bronchi and lungs.
With the acceleration of population aging, rural urbanization, urban industrial development, and the impact of smoking, environmental pollution and destruction, and unhealthy lifestyle factors, high incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer have become a major global concern. In 2000, there were 1.2 million new lung cancer cases worldwide and 1.1 million deaths. Lung cancer is one of the most severe cancers in the world, accounting for the first place in male common malignant tumors and the second or third place in women. The United States is a high-incidence country of lung cancer, with approximately 170,000 new lung cancer patients each year and nearly 160,000 deaths, accounting for 28% of the total cancer death toll. It is estimated that in the United Kingdom, one in four smokers dies from lung cancer, and one-third of middle-aged deaths are due to lung cancer and smoking-induced heart disease.
In countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, smoking control efforts began early, with the hazards of smoking being promoted since the early 1960s and efforts to improve air quality. By the 1990s, millions of smokers had quit, and the incidence of lung cancer in American men had decreased from 102.10 per 100,000 people in 1984 to 81.10 per 100,000 people in 1999; the mortality rate had decreased from 92 per 100,000 people to 80 per 100,000 people, indicating that lung cancer is preventable.
The incidence of lung cancer in male Shanghai residents was 74.70 per 100,000 people in 1996 and 83.43 per 100,000 people in 2000; the incidence of lung cancer in Chinese males in 2000 was 36.7 per 100,000 people; and in Shanghai, it was 53.0 per 100,000 people, both ranking first among all malignant tumors. In 2005, there were 330,000 male lung cancer patients and 170,000 female lung cancer patients.